Staff

Dr Markus Bayer

Dr Markus Bayer

Senior Researcher


contact by phone

+49 228 91196-40

contact by e-mail

markus.bayer(at)bicc.de

Expertise

Research Profile


Markus is a political scientist interested in the fields of peace and conflict studies. He is particularly fascinated by (peaceful and constructive) social and political transformations and the role of "ordinary people" in such "extraordinary times" (Bermeo). In his Ph.D. entitled "How one fights determines what one wins", Markus addressed the effects of (non)violent resistance on democratic consolidation. In other publications, he has - together with esteemed co-authors - addressed phenomena such as clientelism and feelings of entitlement that undermine agency and equal citizenship. Besides that, he is also interested in questions of agency and reconciliation in post-colonial settings.  

In his current position at BICC, Markus focuses on the security-development nexus and the effect of arms exports on developing countries, but also on the process(es) of militarisation and civil-military relations and arms control.

Research Topics / Key Expertise


Militarization

Civil military relations

Democratization

(non)violent resistance

Post-post-colonial theory & practices 

Countries Of Expertise


  • Namibia,
  • South Africa,
  • Uganda,
  • Rwanda,
  • Germany

Professional Career

Markus has worked on a wide array of third-party funded research projects: From 2010 to 2011, he gained first experiences in interdisciplinary research while working at Philipps-University of Marburg on a joint research project on "Cultural categorization and social conflict" funded by the state offensive to develop scientific and economic excellence (LOEWE) of the federal state of Hesse.

Subsequently, from 2011 to 2014, Markus joined a project exploring the question “Why do staes collapse” funded by the German Research Foundation (DFG) and based at the University of Duisburg–Essen. Being part of the Institute of Political Science and working on peace and development-related topics, he also became member of the Institute for Development and Peace (INEF) based in Duisburg.

Between 2015 and 2019, Markus was part of a research team investigating the long-term effects of (non)violent resistance on the consolidation of subsequent democracies, a project closely related to his Ph.D. The project was funded by the German Research Foundation (DFG) and based at the University of Duisburg–Essen. During this project, he did field research in Namibia, Benin and Cape Verde where he spent three months each conducting expert interviews.  

In parallel, from 2017 to 2019, Markus worked on a project on "The demand side of clientelism" (funded by DFG) in which he conducted focus group interviews and survey experiments in Tunisia and South Africa.

In the following year, from 2019 to 2020, he worked at the chair of International Relations and Development Politics at the University of Duisburg–Essen, where he taught classes in peace and conflict studies.

Important Publications

Wegner, E., & Pellicer, M., & Bayer, M., & Tischmeyer, C.

Citizen assessments of clientelistic practices in South Africa

(2022)

Open

Democratic citizenship in flux. Conceptions of citizenship in the light of political and social fragmentation

transcript , Bielefeld (2021)

Open

Publications

Bayer, M., & Bethke, F., & Croissant, A., & Scheeder, N.

Back in Business or Never Out? Military Coups and Political Militarization in Sub-Sahara Africa

PRIF , Frankfurt (2023)

Open

Bayer, M., & Mutschler, M.

The Status Quo of Arms Export Controls

Informationsstelle Wissenschaft und Frieden e.V. (IWIF) , Bonn (2023)

Open

Bayer , M., & Croissant, A., & Izadi, R., & Scheeder, N.

Multidimensional Measures of Militarization (M3): A Global Dataset

SAGE Publications , Thousand Oaks (2023)

Open

Schetter, C., & Bayer, M., & Brzoska, M., & Mutschler, M., & Debiel, T., & Graef, A., & Hegemann, H., & Kahl, M., & Mengelkamp, L., & Niemann, H., & Rothe, D., & Scheffran, J., & Schröder, U., & Vogler, A.

Zeitenwende für die Friedenspolitik: Optionen und Handlungsspielräume

transcript , Bielefeld (2023)

Open

Schetter, C., & Bayer, M., & Wilshusen, F., & von Boemcken, M., & Heinemann-Grüder, A., & Haidara, B.

Bewaffnete Konflikte: Milizen und Militärfirmen: Milizen und Militärfirmen: Gegner oder Instrumente staatlicher Gewalt?

transcript , Bielefeld (2023)

Open

Bayer, M., & Hauk, S.

Global Militarisation Index 2023

BICC , Bonn (2023)

Open

von Boemcken, M., & Rohleder, P., & Bayer, M., & Hauk, S.

Verschwendet oder effektiv? Militärausgaben in Deutschland, Frankreich und dem Vereinigten Königreich im Vergleich

BICC (2023)

Open

Wilshusen, F., & Bayer, M.

Upcoming elections in Sierra Leone – a relapse to violence?

(2023)

Open

Bayer, M., & Rohleder, P.

Militarisierung Messen?

Informationsstelle Militarisierunng (IMI) , Tübingen (2023)

Open

Lambach, D., & Bayer, M., & Bethke, F., & Dressler, M., & Dudouet, V.

Gewaltfreier Widerstand und demokratische Konsolidierung

Springer VS , Cham (2023)

Open

Bayer, M., & Rohleder, P.

Global Militarisation Index 2022

BICC , Bonn (2022)

Open

Meier, O., & Brzoska, M., & Ferl, A., & Bayer, M., & Mutschler, M., & Prem, B., & Reinhold, T., & Schmid, S., & Schwarz, M.

Für eine umfassende, globale und aktive Abrüstungs- und Rüstungskontrollpolitik.

, 49security (2022)

Open

Bayer, M., & Mutschler, M.

Rüstungsexporte gehen uns alle an: Die Nationale Sicherheitsstrategie und ein Rüstungsexportkontrollgesetz müssen das widerspiegeln.

, 49security (2022)

Open

Mutschler, M., & Bayer, M., & Schattenberg, S.

Die Nationale Sicherheitsstrategie sollte festlegen, dass deutsche Rüstungsgüter nur in Demokratien exportiert werden.

, 49security (2022)

Open

Wegner, E., & Pellicer, M., & Bayer, M., & Tischmeyer, C.

Citizen assessments of clientelistic practices in South Africa

(2022)

Open

Bayer, M., & Mutschler, M.

Aufrüstung der Bundeswehr - Bedarfsorientierte Sicherheitspolitik oder Zwei Prozent-Fetischismus?

Greenpeace , Hamburg (2022)

Open

Acharya, N., & Bayer, M., & Breitung, C., & Mutschler, M., & Wagner, K.

Kleinwaffengrundsätze in einem Rüstungsexportkontrollgesetz verankern! Den kompletten Produktzyklus von Kleinwaffen von Produktion bis Vernichtung einbeziehen

BICC , Bonn (2022)

Open

Bayer, M.

Global Militarisation Index 2021

BICC , Bonn (2022)

Open

Bayer, M., & Alberth, R., & Hauk, S., & Mutschler, M.

Global Militarisation Index: Presentation, Codebook and reflexion

BICC , Bonn (2021)

Open

Pellicer, M., & Wegner, E., & Bayer, M., & Tischmeyer, C.

Clientelism from the client’s perspective: A meta-analysis of ethnographic literature

(2020)

Open